Supposedly the system that brought down the Ukrainian 737 after take off from Tehran airposrt is the Russian-made TOR-M1. Let’s look at the system.
The TOR-M1 9A331-1 (NATO code : SA-15 Gauntlet) surface-to-air missile system is a mobile, integrated air defense system designed and manufactured by The Russian Defence Industry. The TOR-M1 is intended for effective defense of troops, civilian and industrial facilities from current and future air attack weapons, primarily high-precision weapons, as well as from aircraft, helicopters, cruise missiles, guided aerial bombs and remotely piloted vehicles. The basic component of the system is a combat vehicle mounted on a cross-country tracked chassis of the intermediate weight category.
The TOR-M1 combat vehicle can detect aerial targets on the move and launch air defense missiles at two highest-threat targets from a short halt. The TOR-M1 can be shipped by any type of transport, including aircraft. The TOR-M1 is capable of operating in an intensive aerial jamming environment. The TOR-M1 combat vehicle can operate autonomously, firing from stationary positions or on the move. Set-up time is rated at 3 minutes and typical reaction time, from target detection to missile launch is 5-8 seconds. Reaction time could range from 3.4 seconds for stationary positions to 10 seconds while on the move. Each fire unit can engage and launch missiles against two separate targets.
There are several modifications of the TOR-M1 system, such as the TOR-M1T (wheeled chassis-mounted systems) and a stationary version.
– 9K330 “Tor”: with the 9M330 missile, minimum range 2 km (1.2 mi), introduced in 1986
– 9K331 “Tor-M”: with the 9M331 missile, minimum range 1.5 km (0.9 mi), introduced in 1991, with greatly improved missile accuracy and the ability to engage two targets simultaneously
– 9K331M “Tor-M1”, “Tor-M1T”: with the 9M331 missile, minimum range 1.5 km (0.9 mi)
– 9K332 “Tor-M2”, “Tor-MTA”, “Tor-MTB”, “Tor-MTS”: with the 9M331 missile and a new surveillance radar, minimum range 1 km (0.6 mi)
Armament and components
The TOR-M1 features a turret with a top-mounted target acquisition radar, and frontal tracking radar, with 8 ready to fire 9M330 or 9M331 missiles stored vertically between the two radars. The target acquisition radar is a 3D F band pulse doppler radar, equipped with a truncated parabolic antenna, and a mechanically, later electronically, scanned in azimuth with a 32-degree sector view, and has an average power output of 1.5 kW, which provides a maximum detection range of 25 km/16 mi. The missile is launched vertically by a power catapult to a height of 15 – 20 m. It is then turned in the target direction, and its main solid-propellant rocket motor gets ignited. There is also a small antenna on the top of the target engagement radar to communicate with missiles after launch.
With a weight of 167 kg, the 9M330 missile is 3.5 m long, carries a 15 kg warhead and has a peak speed of around Mach 2.8. Utilizing command guidance and radar-controlled proximity fuzes, the missiles can maneuver at up to 30Gs and engage targets flying at up to Mach 2.
Cold launched, the missiles are propelled out of the vehicle before the solid-fuel rocket motor fires and the gas-dynamic maneuvering system turns them toward their target. Missiles can also be fired against surface targets. Each missile is a sealed round, stored in two groups of four. Engagement range is up to 12 km with a minimum range varying between 100–2000 m, depending upon version and an effective altitude of 10–6000 m.
TOR-M1 using the 9A330 combat vehicle, which carries a crew of four (one driver, three operators), and acts as an autonomous Transporter, Launcher, And Radar unit. The three man crew consists of the vehicle commander, system operator and vehicle driver, seated at the front of the vehicle with the large box-like unmanned turret in the center and the engine compartment at the rear. The 9A330 is based on the GM-355 chassis manufactured by MMZ, the Tor-M1 using the improved GM-5955. The vehicle suspension consists of seven dual rubber tired roadwheels with the idler at the front, drive sprocket at the rear and three return rollers. The TOR-M1 can run at a maximum road speed of 65 km/h, for a maximum road range of 500 km.
Command and control vehicles
Organizationally, four combat vehicles of the TOR-M1 air defense missile system enter into the complement of an air defense missile battery, which is the small tactical element. The combat vehicles are controlled by the 9S737-M Ranzhir unified battery command post.
8 missiles 9M330 or 9M331
Peru, China, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Iran, Libya, Myanmar, Russia, Ukraine, Venezuela, Yemen.
Number of targets
Simultaneously detected: 48
Simultaneously tracked: 10
Target speed: 0 – 700 m/s
Crew: 3 soldiers
Flight Altitude missile: 6,000 m
Engagement range: 12,000 m maximum
Warhead: 15 kg HE fragmentation
Radar: Top mounted target acquisition radar, and frontal tracking radar
Dimensions on road: Length, 7,5 m; Width, 3,3 m; Height, 5,1 m